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The MIND Program: the Powerful Relationship Between the Brain and Cannabis

The MIND program is Harvard's new research program investigating the relationship between the brain and Cannabis.

Cannabis products are everywhere these days. As a growing number of states relax their medical and recreational cannabis laws, millions of Americans are using the cannabis Sativa plant, commonly known as marijuana, to relax or treat pain, anxiety, insomnia, and other conditions. Still, more data on its impact are needed. "The nation was excited about cannabis use, but politics continues to outpace science," says neuroscientist Staci Gruber, EdM '95, Ph.D., who is working to change that.

Gruber, associate professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, directs both the Cognitive and Clinical Neuroimaging Core and the Marijuana Investigations for Neuroscientific Discovery - the MIND program at McLean Hospital. She and her team are using cognitive and clinical measures, as well as neuroimaging techniques, such as functional MRI, to help elucidate how cannabis affects the human brain.

silhouette of a person kicking on mid-air, MIND program find the powerful relationship between cannabis and health

They found, for example, that individuals who start heavy recreational marijuana use before age 16 - when the brain is still developing - may perform worse on cognitive or behavioural tasks involving the frontal cortex, such as memory, attention, and judgment, than those who do not use cannabis or who started using it later in life.

A recent article that Gruber co-authored highlighted these findings using the results of a simulated driving test. Neuroimaging also revealed changes in the white matter, the neural fibers essential for efficient communication between brain regions, in early-onset cannabis users.

Cannabis products are everywhere these days. As a growing number of states relax their medical and recreational cannabis laws, millions of Americans are using the cannabis Sativa plant, commonly known as marijuana, to relax or treat pain, anxiety, insomnia, and other conditions.

Gruber is especially excited about her team's research on medical cannabis and its effect on cognition, brain structure, function, and quality of life. "There is almost no literature on the long-term impact of medical cannabis," says Gruber, who launched the MIND Program in late 2014 to address this gap.

"Many people are desperate to find something that works to alleviate their symptoms. It would be great to know what really works and what doesn't for patients over time."

MIND program matters

Mind The Step signage, a MIND program key

Encouraging results emerged from the first MIND program investigation, a longitudinal observational study of individuals using medical cannabis for a variety of conditions and symptoms. The team conducts several assessments before participants - who choose their own products - begin treatment. Other tests take place three, six, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months after starting treatment.

Even after a few months, patients performed better on cognitive tasks that require executive functions; "Instead of getting worse, they're actually getting better," says Gruber. This contrasts with the worse cognitive performance seen among some heavy recreational marijuana users relative to non-users. Patients in this pioneering study also reported improved mood, energy, and sleep, and reduced use of conventional medications.

What explains these improvements? Gruber says patients may be thinking more clearly because their symptoms have eased and/or because they are using less conventional medications such as opioids. Also, medical cannabis patients tend to be older than recreational users, and she says there are some preclinical data suggesting that cannabis may help drive the aging of the body's endocannabinoid system - a natural system that helps to regulate essential functions such as sleep, mood, appetite, and memory.

The MIND program is also conducting medical marijuana research studies involving veterans, women with male and menopausal problems, and those suffering from chronic pain. In addition, Gruber's laboratory launched the country's first clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of two different formulations that include cannabidiol (CBD) - a non-intoxicating component of cannabis - for treating anxiety.

treat yourself, a MIND program main topic in its research

With MIND Program, patients will receive a full spectrum product that is high in CBD and contains other cannabinoids and terpenoids (organic compounds that provide aroma, flavour, and can also have their own effects on the body); a form of CBD composite from a single extraction from the same source; or a placebo. Gruber wants to know if the full spectrum version will work better to reduce anxiety, which affects millions of Americans.$4.5 million HMS gift from Harvard alumnus Charles R. "Bob" Broderick, AM '05, to foster cannabis-related discovery.

Gruber's 20-plus-year quest to understand how cannabis affects the brain began with a summer internship at college that changed his life at McLean, located in Belmont, Massachusetts. "I fell in love with clinical trials and evaluations and neuropsychological tests and I thought, 'I can't imagine doing anything more exciting than this,'" she recalls. She remained at McLean and collaborated with McLean researchers during her college, undergraduate, and graduate years and then joined the faculty. Gruber says she is honored to work with dedicated patient volunteers in her studies. "And if we're doing something that helps improve the quality of life for any group of patients, we change the world."

Cannabis Terms Explained for MIND program

person holding amber glass bottle, MIND program, the Powerful Relationship Between the Brain and Cannabis

Cannabis: Used since ancient times, the cannabis Sativa plant contains more than 400 chemical compounds, including more than 100 phytocannabinoids, which can cause drug-like effects in humans. The best known are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which produces a mental "high" and cannabidiol (CBD), which does not.

Depending on the type of product used, cannabis can be smoked, inhaled, ingested by mouth, rubbed into the skin, or mixed with food and drink. To date, 33 states and Washington, DC, have fully legalized medical marijuana and another 15 allow the use of products with low THC and high levels of CBD for some medical purposes. On the recreational front, 11 states and DC have legalized the recreational use of marijuana by adults.

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Strain of the Week: Wedding Cake

Wedding Cake Indica Dominant Hybrid - 60% Indica / 40% Sativa

It's certain marijuana genetics that will go down in history as cannabis genetics that possesses an individual odor, like cheese for example. You may think it's remembered for its strength and potency, like Amnesia, but that's not the case. In fact, some of them have medicinal properties so specific they can be provided as medicine, such as Cannatonic. It might be interesting to point out that there are a few more for their intense flavor, like that of Sour Diesel.

Nevertheless, there are some plants that will never go out of style because they combine various desirable properties such as potency, flavor, yield, etc. throughout their life. A growing industry inside the cannabis industry began to see new plants emerge just three years ago, such as Wedding Cake, which has already become one of the most sought-after pot plants. You will discover why he is renowned as soon as you read what comes next.

wedding cake kush can make wonders for you

How is the variety of this marijuana prototype? These herbs quickly rise to the top of the list because they immediately stand out. Wedding Cake has is bright with the layer of resin that surrounds them, against the dark background of the colorful flowers and orange pistils, they are more than a jewel, they are a treasure.

This product has a crunchy texture but it's hard to crush because of its great hardness. It is from the twisted nature of the flowers that they yield a lot in the grinder. With only a little less than one teaspoon of weed, you are able to fill one joint, and with a little more, you are able to roll one blunt.

The details about Wedding Cake

Wedding Cake is an indica-predominant hybrid. It is obtained by crossing Cherry Pie and Girl Scout Cookies (GSC). It has an exceptionally sweet aromatic essence and a fruity flavour. The flavour is a perfect combination of the sweetness of biscuits with the fruitiness of a cherry pie. It works as a calming and appetite-stimulating agent and is very useful for patients who have syndromes associated with depression, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, and other related symptoms.

person holding paper on kush.  Wedding Cake has is bright with the layer of resin that surrounds them, against the dark background of the colorful flowers and orange pistils, they are more than a jewel, they are a treasure.

A clone of Triangle Mints # 23 was bred by the Jungle Boys and some unique vanilla characteristics were discovered in it that reminded them of a wedding cake. Due to its immense influence on the media, this same group of growers is responsible for making this plant famous throughout the world.

Wedding Cake can act as a sedative for patients, but it helps to calm the nerves or control anxiety-stimulating symptoms. While it may not completely impair focus and energy levels, it can cause normal dryness of the eyes and mouth.

Terpenes and flavonoids create an unparalleled organoleptic quality. That's certainly the most surprising characteristic of the oil. This scent is a mix of lemon notes reminiscent of lemon curd with the vanilla glaze found in certain baked goods along with a sweet background.

Intensely sweet, minty, creamy, and minty in the aroma, the flavor is similar to a good dessert, with noticeable vanilla and lemon flavors and hints of pine typical of OG varieties. If you give it a try, you are likely to become a fan of this herb flavor.

An analysis of the terpene composition indicates a high concentration of Limonene and Humulene, significant levels of Caryophyllene and Myrcene, as well as some Pinene and Linalol.

This particular medicinal strain is grown indoors. Wedding Cake is noted that contain a 0.2% THC level in its exclusively medicinal version. In terms of physical characteristics, it is shaped like pine trees and appears dense in structural form. It has a very frosty appearance and has dark green leaves. This particular medicinal strain is also heavily adorned with orange trichomes throughout. It is best known for its sugary flavour as well as its high potency value.

green leaf plant in close up photography. Wedding Cake is noted that contain a 0.2% THC level in its exclusively medicinal version

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Canniberia: medical cannabis flowers for the pharmaceutical sector

Canniberia is a highly innovative medicinal cannabis flowers producer. To grow and produce the best medical cannabis flowers for their business, they use world-renowned computer-controlled, centrifugal, hydroponic growing technology in a GACP, CUMCS, and GMP-certified environment.

The patented hydroponic growing system used by CannIberia offers the following important benefits to its customers:

medical cannabis flowers types.


In terms of medical cannabis flowers, cultivation is carried out in an indoor facility isolated from atmospheric or other contamination. GACP, GMP and CUMCS are strictly enforced from seed acquisition to final packaging.

Plants (medical cannabis flowers) are grown in a hydroponic environment. Electronic plant monitoring is conducted 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, throughout production. Computers dynamically adjust to plant environmental and organic requirements to ensure supreme quality.

green leafed plant, a specimen of medical cannabis flowers

Rather than using soil, hydroponics uses water as the main medium for growing cannabis. Hydroponic setups involve growing cannabis plants in buckets or baskets containing an inert growing medium, suspended over a tank of water. 

Aquatic plants thrive on nutrient-rich water that is aerated by air stones. It is a model that manifests itself in a variety of ways, with growers deciding to use different systems and equipment. This article will explore the many advantages of hydroponic farming. However, let's talk about the history of this intriguing art form first.


State-of-the-art production technology allows you to present a new crop to you every 10 days, up to a current maximum of 24 cultivars. Your urgently needed harvest will be ready 63 days after the seedlings mature. This provides an unparalleled market response.

The CannIberia medical cannabis flowers system has been specifically designed and scientifically operated to respond quickly to the niche and mass-market changes experienced by your drug-producing customers - ensuring you an unrivalled competitive advantage.


person holding white flower during sunset, medical cannabis flowers

The CannIberia medical cannabis flowers system delivers a crop every 60 days. This guarantees you, the customer, a constant supply of freshly picked flowers that are unaffected by time and wear and tear. Crops are dried quickly through a patented process that retains the cannabinoids in perfect condition.

Also, you need to know that the dry product is then hermetically packaged to ensure quality retention and ready for transport. Any product that is not shipped immediately is stored in a carefully controlled environment to prevent spoilage.


The reasons for CannIberia's medical cannabis flowers business to establish itself in this part of Europe are:

Portugal has adopted progressive cannabis-related health care policies;

Famous explorers like Vasco da Gama, who discovered new worlds, come from this region. CannIberia intends to follow these steps and explore new avenues for revolutionary medical care;

The region is considered 'marginally impoverished', but it is not far behind. It is a region of immense agricultural promise and untapped human potential. It is part of CannIberia's mission to bring employment and wealth to this region and its people;

It has a fantastic temperate Mediterranean climate with hot summers and snowless winters that are ideal for growing high CBD and low THC medicinal cannabis for the pharmaceutical industry.

Address: Moura, Portugal
Email: +351 927 505 494
Mobile: info@canniberia.com

white and brown cigarette stick on white and black floral textile, as medical cannabis flowers

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Cannabis plant history: Which was the first civilization to use cannabis?

A study published in 2019, by the American magazine Science Advances points out that human civilization has already smoked cannabis for about 2,500 years. Researchers found remnants of the plant burned in pipes unearthed in a cemetery in Jirzankal, in China's far West. Cannabis plant history dates much further back than initially thought.

The analyzes showed that the main component present in the material was cannabinol (CBN), a cannabinoid product of the oxidation decomposition of the most psychoactive component of cannabis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Thus, this is the oldest record of the use of cannabis through smoking and, most likely, for psychoactive purposes, among others.

Still, even in BC times, this is not the longest-running documentation of human cannabis use. In Asia itself, there is evidence of domestication of hemp more than 3,500 years ago. Cannabis plant history references indicate its use as food (seeds) and for obtaining oil and applications involving the fibre, in particular the stems, to make fabrics and medicinal use.

Cannabis plant history is remoted to ancient times

The first civilization to use cannabis for medicinal purposes

In cannabis plant history, the first historical record of the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes happened around 2700 BC, in the Chinese book Pen Tsao, considered the first pharmacopeia in history. The medicinal use of cannabis was described for the treatment of joint pain.

Medical cannabis is also present in the early days of Indian civilization. In ancient Hindu scriptures known as The Vedas, cannabis is considered one of the five sacred crops, along with barley and soma (an unidentified plant from which the juice became a ritualistic drink). Cannabinoid therapies are believed to be part of Ayurveda (traditional medicine). However, the first mention of ‘bhang’ – the Sanskrit word for cannabis – as a medicine was found much later, in the works of Sushruta, believed to have been written between 500-600 AD.

In Egypt, ancient scrolls occasionally quote the word ‘Shemshemet’, particularly in reference to medicine. Many experts believe that Shemshemet is the name given to cannabis in the ancient civilizations of the country, holder of advanced medical techniques at the time. One of the most interesting instructions found for the use of cannabis was to crush the plant with celery and, the next day, apply it to wash the eyes of patients with glaucoma. Surprisingly, there is modern evidence supporting the use of cannabis compounds to help treat the disease, as THC has the potential to lower intraocular pressure.

person walking near The Great Sphinx. Egypt has a lot of Cannabis plant history

Also in Egypt, the Ebers papyrus, celebrated as the oldest complete medical journal ever discovered, dating back to around 1500 BC, points to a medicinal formulation where Shemshemet (cannabis) must be crushed in honey, before being applied inside the vagina to “to cool the uterus and eliminate its heat”. Cannabis' well-documented anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties likely played a role in this treatment.

In cannabis plant history, another ancient Egyptian papyrus, the Berlin Papyri, shows the indication of Shemshemet (cannabis) as “ointment to ward off fever”. The Chester Beatty papyrus, which is also believed to have been written around 1300 BC, makes references to cannabis in the treatment of some colorectal diseases, probably including cholera.

Already in the modern era, in 1464, the physician Ibn al-Badri, from the medical faculty of Calcutta, describes the use of cannabis in the treatment of refractory epilepsies for the first time.

Cannabis plant history: spiritual and ritual uses

In Egypt, cannabis was part of funeral rituals. Scientists and archaeologists have discovered cannabis pollen in the remains of Ramses the Great, pharaoh in 1213 BC Traces of cannabis have also been found in other ancient Egyptian mummies. A mummy believed to have been buried around 950 BC had significant amounts of THC, along with nicotine and cocaine, in its tissues.

low angle photography of brown concrete building under blue sky during the daytime. Cannabis plant history includes Egyptian deities and gods!

In addition, the Egyptian goddess Sheshat, the writing deity, was often depicted with a seven-pointed star-shaped leaf above her head. Many believe it to be an illustration of the cannabis leaf, indicating the importance attached to the plant in ancient Egyptian society.

In Hinduism, a traditional Indian religion, cannabis plant history is associated with one of its main gods: Shiva. Several Hindu legends speak about Shiva and his consumption of bhang. A well-known story relates that the Hindu gods churned the cosmic ocean to access the elixir of immortality (Amrit). Some versions of this legend claim that cannabis began to grow where the drops of this elixir fell.

In another version, when Shiva was called to drink the poison produced in the churning ocean, his throat turned blue. It is said that he felt immense pain, even receiving bhang from his wife, Parvati.

The link between the plant and the divine in ancient Hindu culture resulted in the use of cannabis by many people in attempts to become closer to their chosen God, Shiva. In cannabis plant history, cannabis is technically banned in India to this day, but the law does not include the plant's leaves. Therefore, it is common to witness the consumption of bhang, especially on the night of the Shivaratri festival (Great Night of Shiva or Night of Shiva).

The ritualistic use of cannabis was also recorded in Israel. More than 2,700 years ago, the faithful of a “holy of saints” sanctuary may have used the plant. Researchers found burning cannabis and incense at the site, which is in the Kingdom of Judah, a region that now includes parts of the West Bank and central Israel.

Cannabis plant history: industrial purposes

aerial view photography of brown pagoda temple during daytime. Cannabis plant history tells that hemp ropes have been found in ancient sites across Asia and the Middle East.

In ancient times, cannabis was also widely used in the production of textiles, paper, and food. Hemp ropes have been found in ancient sites across Asia and the Middle East.

In cannabis plant history, it is believed that the fibre from cannabis was used in Egypt even by workers as part of an ingenious way of breaking larger stones. The hemp cloth was squeezed into the cracks of a large rock and covered with water. When the tissue began to expand, so did the crack, resulting in the stone breaking.

In India, the ancients would also have used the hemp plant for industrial purposes, similar to what was seen in other regions. Evidence shows Indians as the first to practice the technology of 'hempcrete' – a form of plaster that contains 'bhang' mixed with clay or lime.

Cannabis plant history: From the first civilization to use cannabis to the present

The Ancient Age ended in 476 AD, but the use of cannabis did not go along with it. The plant arrived in Europe, spread to the West, and landed in South American lands, such as Brazil, together with the Portuguese caravels – the sails were made of hemp fabric.

Since then, cannabis has been criminalized in many places, already decriminalized in so many others, and we continue to discover (or rediscover) its potential every day. Today, there is no doubt that this plant could be the centre of a large market.

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The strain of the Week: Gorilla Glue

Originating from a cross between Sour Dub, Chem Sister and Chocolate Diesel, Gorilla Glue has already won so many awards that we've lost even the count. The main winners are first place in the 2014 Michigan and Los Angeles Cannabis Cup and the Jamaican High Times World Cup in the same year. In 2015 Gorilla Glue won the World Cannabis Cup, and in 2018 the Cannabis Cup Spain.

The awards praise the quality of the strain that is sought after around the world. Interestingly, according to GG Strain's founders Joesy Whales and Lone Watty, the Original Glue was an accident. One of the most special genetics in the world was born when the Chem Sister Joesy was cultivating became hermaphrodite and pollinated a cross of Sour Dubb and Chem Diesel.

green plant in close up photography, Gorilla Glue strain.

What a divine accident! Its flowers are robust and completely covered in a thick, sticky resin. Gorilla Glue is very special and is named for the viscosity of its trichomes that work as a glue for the fingers of those who want to make a joint of the strain.

The Gorilla Glue strain has a very characteristic and extremely strong odour, which mixes earthy notes with a little pine and chocolate. In addition to the potent psychoactive effects, this strain also has a very strong and unrivaled flavour, which mixes the sour with the "Diesel" taste inherited from other strains.

As for the terpene profile – the strain is rich in Caryophyllene, Limonene, and Myrcene. Caryophyllene helps fight inflammation, and Limonene is believed to help fight anxiety and stress.

Gorilla Glue Effects

If you're looking for a strain that will get you completely stoned, you've found the right strain. Gorilla Glue's relaxing effects are extraordinary. With specimens reaching up to 30% THC, some Original Glue balls will cause calming effects but also euphoria.

Because of the high amount of THC, strain can cause other potent psychoactive effects, such as anxiety that doesn't seem to go away. However, strain's trademark is to leave you glued, glued to the sofa, very calm and relaxed.

Remember that Gorilla Glue is not recommended for use at the beginning of the day – unless the only thing you need to do is sit on the couch eating snacks all day. Being able to do complex tasks that require motor coordination and reasoning after consuming Gorilla Glue is something that even the most experienced cannabis users will not be able to do well. You can check a video about more Gorilla Glue details:

Medicinal Use of Gorilla Glue

In addition to its above-average amount of THC, Gorilla Glue also has a concentration of approximately 1% CBN, which makes it excellent for treating some medical conditions.

The Gorilla Glue strain wave can leave you in a relaxed and euphoric state of mind, which helps a lot in combating anxiety, stress, and depression. As we mentioned above, the strain can leave you glued to the sofa for hours, which also makes it a great ally in combating insomnia. Users also report that posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients can find great relief in this award-winning strain.


black gorilla standing behind rock, Gorilla Glue has the same name of this majestic creature

There are strains that are very easy and strains that are very difficult to grow. You could say that the Original Gorilla Glue fits right in the middle of the two categories. Growers report that the strain has good yields both Indoor and Outdoor, but Indoor cultivation is more recommended when discretion is needed due to the intense, strong smell that the plant gives off.

Tips: Gorilla Glue grows vertically quickly and can therefore become a real wonder using the SCROG (green screen) method, as fast-growing and robust plants will fill all the spaces in your garden quickly.
Another very good tip is to use LST or low-stress training. This method consists of tying the branches to strengthen them and serves to give all buds the same amount of sunlight, which will ensure that the entire plant reaches its maximum potential.

Be careful; Gorilla Glue is a very susceptible plant to hermaphroditism – always stay tuned to eliminate male plants from your crop as quickly as possible.


The strain of the Week: Gorilla Glue

I hope the information about the characteristics, recreational and medicinal effects of Gorilla Glue has helped you understand more about this strain and decide the best time to smoke it and, of course, if you will enjoy the breeze of this strain!

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8 Most Common Cannabinoids Explained: Types, Effects, Legality

Cannabis is a wonderful multifaceted plant with the potential to change the world radically. The basic cannabinoids it contains have impressive therapeutic and medicinal value. Cannabis has hundreds of these compounds that make it such a diverse plant with thousands of cultivars.

These compounds work effortlessly within the human body to help maintain homeostasis, heal and treat and support many areas of wellness. Read on to learn more about the nature of basic cannabinoids and how our bodies are designed to work in harmony with them.

Basic Cannabinoids: green palm tree during daytime

What are this basic cannabinoids?

Ever wonder why smoking pot makes you high? Why exactly does the herb cause this feeling? It is because of the chemical compounds in the cannabis plant known as cannabinoids. These naturally occurring chemicals interact with the body's endocannabinoid system (ECS) to regulate many important bodily functions such as sleep, mood, appetite, temperature, digestion, and more. ECS is an amazing network that helps the body maintain homeostasis, and all animals have one.

The human body produces its own endocannabinoids, but it also interacts with the phytocannabinoids in cannabis. The word "Phyto" means or is related to plants, but we will only refer to cannabis compounds as basic cannabinoids for that purpose. The cannabis plant is full of amazing nutrients like vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids, proteins, and fibre. It also contains flavonoids, terpenes, and over 100 basic cannabinoids. And that's exactly what science has discovered so far.

Basic cannabinoids have distinct properties, from their molecular structure to how they affect our body and mind. Once consumed and processed within the body, basic cannabinoids interact with one of two receptors in the vast network of ECS.

Basic cannabinoids receptors: CB1 and CB2

Although scientists are still researching all the ways ECS works, they know it is made up of three main parts: endocannabinoids, enzymes, and receptors. While there may be more receptors yet to be discovered, there are two we know a lot about. CB1 receptors are found throughout the central nervous system, helping to regulate things in the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is the network of nerves that extends from the spinal cord, and this is where you will find the CB2 receptors. These receptors are more concentrated in immune cells, hormones, muscles, and the gastrointestinal system.

The most abundant basic cannabinoids found in marijuana are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC has a high binding affinity with CB1 receptors, which moderate the psychoactive properties of THC. This is why THC can alter mood, consciousness, motor control, memory, and behaviour as it interacts with receptors associated with the central nervous system.

There are no specific receptors for individual basic cannabinoids. Instead, cannabinoids bind to CB1 and CB2 receptors and act as agonists or antagonists. Agonists mimic the body's natural endocannabinoids to activate receptors and stimulate a response, while antagonistic actions block cannabinoid receptors and reduce their activity levels. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive basic cannabinoids that has little affinity for CB1 or CB2 receptors but antagonizes the presence of THC. In fact, CBD is known to reduce the psychoactive effects of THC when consumed together.

How many cannabinoids are there?

Of the 545 compounds found in cannabis, 144 of them have been identified as phytocannabinoids. These basic cannabinoids were grouped into subcategories according to their molecular structure.

Most people are familiar with THC and CBD as the dominant basic cannabinoids. They are certainly the most prevalent in marijuana and hemp, but over the past decade, research has learned a lot about other smaller basic cannabinoids and their roles within ECS. In turn, cannabis growers have developed varieties rich in these other basic cannabinoids to provide more therapeutic value from this incredible plant.

Basic Cannabinoids, green and brown pine cone, CBD

There is a phenomenon that occurs when we consume cannabis in its entirety, without isolating and segregating basic cannabinoids from other natural plant materials. The resulting effect of consuming all these valuable compounds together is known as "the environment effect". Essentially, cannabis compounds work better together, resulting in a full spectrum of effects. The entourage effect unleashes the full potential of the plant, engaging the ECS to its fullest potential.

The 8 most common cannabinoids

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
THC is one of the most prominent basic cannabinoids found in cannabis. Its acronym is synonymous with getting high and has left its mark on pop culture for decades. Although delta-9 THC is one of the basic cannabinoids we are most familiar with, there are other THC analogues identified as delta-8 THC, THCA, THCP, and THCV.

Effects: THC is known to relieve pain and help with other physical conditions such as insomnia, nausea, anxiety, depression, glaucoma, cancer, muscle spasms, and more. While its medicinal value should be indisputable, THC also offers many recreational and fun benefits such as happiness, euphoria, thought creation, ecstasy, and increased sexual desire.

Legality: THC is an illegally federal Table 1 drug. However, THC and products containing THC are legal in countries with an approved and regulated medical marijuana or recreational marijuana program for adult use, around basic cannabinoids. Currently, more than 80% of the United States, for example, has some form of legal, medical, or decriminalized law in place.

Common products: Today, THC is found in almost everything you can consume. The most common are raw flowers or joints, edibles, topicals, beverages, capsules, tinctures and extracts. However, in some high-end dispensaries, you'll find sublingual strips with THC, transdermal patches, chewing gum, cooking oil, hot sauce, toothpaste, personal lubricant, and suppositories.

Basic Cannabinoids: cannabis leaves and stem

Cannabidiol (CBD)
The second of the most popular basic cannabinoids is CBD. Over the past decade, the CBD has grown in popularity, although it really took off with the passage of the 2018 Farm Act. This important legislation legalized the growth of industrial hemp in the United States, opening the market for hemp products grown and manufactured in the United States, such as fabrics, paper, food, and medicine. Hemp has the potential to be one of the most useful agricultural crops in the world.

Effects: CBD offers therapeutic benefits ranging from promoting deeper sleep to reducing inflammation. It is also a natural remedy to reduce anxiety and relieve symptoms of depression. CBD is not psychoactive and will not make you high, although a quality product should produce noticeable effects. This can include pain relief and mood swings.

Legality: CBD products are legal to use and sell nationwide. There is a caveat - all CBD products derived from hemp must contain less than 0.2% THC by total volume to maintain regulatory compliance. Any CBD product obtained from marijuana must comply with rules governing THC products within the state in which it was produced.

Common products: Most popularly, CBD-rich hemp products are found in body products, supplements, and edibles. There are many companies that sell and market marijuana joints to people who like to smoke without the effect. CBD dyes are widely marketed to a wide audience, including use for children and pets. Currently, it is not uncommon to find CBD in deodorants, skin care products, soaking salts, recovery drinks, and vapour cartridges.

Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDA)
CBDA is found mainly in the live cannabis plant. When the plant is harvested, CBDA converts to CBD as it dries, cures, and is processed. In the process, CBDA transforms itself almost completely, leaving little behind. However, there are still traces found in crude oils and extracts.

Effects: Much like CBD, CBDA is not psychoactive and won't get you high. Some people prefer a raw form of CBD and choose CBDA because of its higher affinity rate. It is up to 1000 times more powerful than CBD. Typical effects include improved alertness, relief from anxiety, stress, insomnia, and pain.

Legality: CBDA falls under the same legality as CBD. As long as it is derived from hemp and contains less than 0.2% THC, it is legal in countries and states where CBD is permitted.

Common Products: Although CBD products are more widely available, you can find CBDA products in the form of oils, dyes, soft gels, topicals, and vapour cartridges.

Cannabinol (CBN)
When THC is exposed to light and heat, CBN is formed. Environmental factors oxidize the THC molecules, and they slowly degrade into CBN. If you have any old weeds around the house, it probably has a lot more CBN than when you got it. Fortunately, this means that making CBN is easy to do, which is convenient because the market doesn't yet offer many products with high CBN content.

Effects: CBN doesn't do much on its own. In order to feel its effects, it must be consumed in conjunction with THC. This is a great example of the entourage effect in action because CBN is responsible for about 10% of the high associated with THC.

Legality: If CBN is from oxidative stress to THC, then it legally falls into the same status as THC. However, if the CBN is from a hemp plant, it will fall under the same legal guidelines as the CBD. Currently, most of the CBN comes from marijuana, in which case it is only legal in states with a recreational or adult marijuana program.

Common Products: Pure or highly concentrated CBN products are hard to find. However, there are some brands that sell oil with high CBN content and soft gels. The easiest way to get the benefits of CBN is to expose the cannabis flower to sunlight and oxygen prior to consumption to increase natural levels.

Basic Cannabinoids: green and brown leaf plant

Cannabigerol (CBG)
CBG is often considered the "stem cell cannabinoid" because its acidic form, CBGA, is the mother of many other popular basic cannabinoids. When CBGA is heated, it splits into THC, CBD, CBC, and CBG. Because of this degradation process, it is very difficult to find a pure CBG product.

Effects: CBG is not psychoactive, but it relaxes the body and mind, and users report an increase in mood accompanied by a slight euphoria.

Legality: As long as the final CBG product contains no more than 0.2% THC (In Europe), it is considered legal under the Farm Bill.

Common Products: Although extremely rare, there are some mild gels and tinctures that contain moderate amounts of CBG. Smoking flowers with a high CBG content is also a good option.

Cannabichrome (CBC)
Although CBC is a lesser-known of the basic cannabinoids, it is actually the second most prevalent after THC. In some plants, CBC may account for up to 64% of the plant's total cannabinoid profile.

Effects: CBC is not intoxicating, although it has similar effects to CBD. It can promote happiness and improve mood while fighting inflammation and mild pain.

Legality: As with many basic cannabinoids, this depends on the source. If the CBC is derived from hemp, it will fall within the guidelines established by each state or country as determined by the Farm Bill. If the CBC is marijuana, it's illegal unless it's grown, mined, and sold in a state with a legal cannabis program.

Common Products: More and more CBC products are hitting the market in the form of soft gels, chocolate bars, extracts and tinctures.

Cannabicyclol (CBL)
Just as CBN is formed by exposing THC to light and heat, CBL is formed by exposing CBC to these same environmental factors. Although CBL is present in minimal amounts, it will be found in greater numbers in older weeds.

Effects: Very little is known about CBL because of its low percentages, so the effects are poorly studied. Researchers speculate that it may produce similar effects to CBC and CBD, but more research is needed for conclusive evidence.

Legality: Since there are currently no pure CBL products on the market, we can only assume that CBL would follow the lead of many other basic cannabinoids on this list in regards to where it comes from and where it is being sold, as well as the percentage of THC in the final product.

Common Products: Currently, there are no pure CBL products on the market, and the best way to experience this cannabinoid is by involving the entourage effect with a full spectrum cannabis product or smoking cannabis that has been exposed to light and heat.

Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)
THCV is one of several THC analogues. Although it may not be as well known as THC or CBD, THCV is one of the widely studied basic cannabinoids that dates back to its discovery in the 1970s. Structurally, it is similar to THC, but it is only psychoactive at high doses.

Effects: At low doses, THCV does not have a very noticeable effect. However, if you smoke a strain that is high in THCV, the resulting high is energetic and lucid, but the effects don't last as long as THC. The effects are pleasant, although short-lived. Users report that THCV suppresses appetite, which tends to be the opposite of THC.

Legality: THCV is technically not a federally illegal drug, at least in the United States. However, it is safe to assume that if it comes from marijuana, it must follow state-by-state marijuana rules.

Common Products: There are several different varieties of high THCV cannabis, including Pineapple Purps, Ace of Spades, Jack the Ripper, Durban Poison, and Willie Nelson. THCV products are becoming more common and are found in the form of gums, tinctures, mints, steam pens, and sublingual strips.

Frequently Asked Questions about basic Cannabinoids from Hemp and Marijuana

Basic Cannabinoids: green palm tree during sunset

What is the difference between basic cannabinoids and cannabidiol?
Cannabidiol, more popularly known as CBD, is one of many different basic cannabinoids found in weeds. There are many different basic cannabinoids found in marijuana, and CBD is just one of more than 100, including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN), which are used primarily for therapeutic purposes such as pain and anxiety relief.

What cannabinoids are in CBD oil?
Cannabidiol, or CBD, is the main component of CBD oil, naturally. However, the presence of other basic cannabinoids depends on the type of oil you have. The full-spectrum oil utilizes all-natural basic cannabinoids in marijuana, including THC. Meanwhile, the broad spectrum features almost all basic cannabinoids but no THC. The CBD isolate has a narrow range of basic cannabinoids, mainly CBD in a carrier oil.

How many basic cannabinoids are there in a hemp plant?
Hemp and marijuana are classified as cannabis and have largely the same basic cannabinoids, with more than 100 basic cannabinoids found in hemp. The main difference between hemp and marijuana is that there is a much higher concentration of CBD and a minimum of THC in hemp, eliminating the psychoactive properties.


This plant is a complex one, with a whole mixture of essential compounds including delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and the ability to combat stress. As a result of the discovery of its compounds, another important neurotransmitter system has been named the endocannabinoid system, which plays a very important role in maintaining health. The brain and other parts of the body are widely distributed with this system and it is thought to be responsible for a number of valuable physiological functions. 

The potency of cannabis has been on the rise worldwide for quite a while now, and this has been accompanied by increasing health concerns. Researchers have been able to find a link between cannabis use and an increased risk of becoming afflicted with a psychotic disorder through a number of epidemiological projects. 

Despite this, it must also be acknowledged that not every cannabis user will undergo the same negative effects as mentioned above. However, there are some emerging vulnerability factors, which may vary from certain genetic characteristics to characteristics related to personality, that may make someone more susceptible. It is not fully known why some people are more susceptible to its harmful effects. 

In a cannabis plant, there are over 400 different chemical entities, sixty of which can be named cannabinoid compounds, which have different effects on the human body. The use of illicit drugs has been linked to various mental health problems, particularly in the younger generation, and cannabis use has been associated with a variety of mental health disorders as well. 

It is also well known that not everyone who uses this substance is subjected to the adverse effects it has on their mental health in the same way, despite the links made between its use and the development of mental health problems. As a part of this article, we will provide a brief overview of the different effects of the two main constituents. This article is composed of describing the effects of both compounds on different parts of the population. 

As a first step, we will review our current knowledge on the biochemistry of the cannabis plant and the endocannabinoid system before looking at the available evidence in the literature regarding the reasons for the varying effects of cannabis in different individuals.

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6 Amazing Facts about Cannabidiol CBD

In the recent past, cannabidiol – popularly known as Cannabidiol CBD, has seen increased use in the wellbeing market owing to its wide range of health benefits devoid of intoxication and other adverse effects.

The rate at which people are using Cannabidiol CBD for therapeutic purposes is increasing steadfastly, with more people continuing to discover all its advantages. However, no matter how much popularity Cannabidiol has, there still is a fair share of deception surrounding the product.

Cannabidiol CBD

In the media, marijuana (CBD) is often mentioned as a way to boost the quality of your post-workout smoothie or morning coffee, and you may see it touted as an ideal addition to either. CBD-infused sports bras are also available on the market. What is CBD, and what are some of the benefits you can get from CBD? Besides having the ability to heal various ailments, why is CBD so popular?

Does cannabidiol differ in any way from marijuana, hemp, and cannabis?

Cannabidiol can be defined as the second most prevalent active ingredient in marijuana (also known as cannabis). There are several components of medical marijuana that contain CBD, the most important is that CBD is extracted from hemp, a cousin to marijuana, or it can be produced using a lab. 

Among the as many as hundreds of essential ingredients found in marijuana, CBD is not a psychoactive compound in itself. It should be noted that, according to a report from the World Health Organization, "In humans, CBD displays no physiological effects suggesting it may be involved in abuse or dependence… At this time, there is no indication that CBD use could cause any health problems."

Therefore, more information and guidelines need to be available for you as a consumer to answer all the questions you may have.


As opposed to other components in the cannabis plant, cannabidiol is defined to have no psychoactive properties. It is, therefore, more therapeutic than intoxicating compared to other cannabis products. In addition, the usage of Cannabidiol products has correlated with calming and relaxing effects.

woman in white robe lying on bed. Cannabidiol CBD


Cannabidiol has an extract from hemp in the cannabis plant, and you, therefore, don’t have to worry about breaking the law by using it. Hemp has a 0.3 percentage of THC as required by federal law in some states. However, it does consider illegal if it got extracted from marijuana with more than 0.3% THC.


Cannabidiol has been proven not to change significant aspects like blood pressure, body temperature, or heart rate, and neither does it affect psychological capabilities. Therefore, even though an ideal Cannabidiol dosage is not determined, you can start with a small dose and increase your way up as you learn what would best work for you.


There is a wide range of Cannabidiol products available for use, depending on how you want to use it and the desired effects. The only trick would be finding genuine and quality products to avoid adverse side effects on yourself.

Cannabidiol CBD is available as CBD oil, CBD gummies, CBD tinctures, and CBD vape. The most common product is CBD oil that comes in the form of full-spectrum, broad-spectrum, and CBD isolate, all with a varied concentration of cannabinoids.


Studies have proven that taking Cannabidiol may effectively deal with anxiety and reduce stress levels. There is mainly because instead of getting you high like other products from the cannabis plant, Cannabidiol calms you down and makes you relax better.


Cannabidiol interacts with the endocannabinoid system in the body by binding to the endogenous cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that break it down. Depending on which receptors cannabinoid interacts with, the consumers get varied effects ranging from relief of pain, inflammation, and anxiety.

There are more benefits associated with the use of Cannabidiol CBD than there are disadvantages. So you can consider giving it a try and see how it works for you. It is, however, advisable that you check with your physician first if you are on other oral medications.

woman in white robe sitting on bed. Cannabidiol CBD

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Hemp plants: why are they important?

We keep on hearing about hemp plants, but what are they really? Hemp is a term for certain varieties of the Cannabis sativa species. In contrast to "marijuana" - a common word for cannabis that is relatively abundant in THC - hemp has relatively little THC.

Humans have been cultivating hemp plants for thousands of years for food, medicine, and textiles. Hemp may be one of the oldest known plants that humans have cultivated for medicinal and nutritional purposes.

green plant in black plastic pot. We keep on hearing about hemp plants, but what are they really?

People in ancient China seem to have started cultivating hemp plants around 2700 BC Reliable source. According to historical records, hemp spread across Europe after expanding into Asia some 2,000 to 2,200 years ago.

The human relationship with hemp is multifaceted, with humans using hemp and hemp plant parts in various ways. Some records claim that the spine of the first copy of the Bible, and even Christopher Columbus' canvas ropes and sails, were made from hemp fibres.

Read on to learn more about the hemp plant and its uses, including its current legality, health benefits and other uses.

How does hemp differ from other cannabis plants?

The main difference between hemp plants and other cannabis plants is in cultivation, use, and, most importantly, levels of the compound delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC is what causes the "high" that cannabis is famous for.

To be legally classified as a hemp plant, a cannabis plant must contain no more than 0.3% THC on a dry weight basis. In contrast, most other cannabis plants contain between 5–30% THC.

The Cannabis sativa species contains about 480 natural components, of which more than 100 belong to a group of compounds called cannabinoids.

Some cannabinoids, notably THC, are intoxicating, meaning they can make someone feel "high". Although hemp plants are low in THC, they can be abundant in other cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD), which is not intoxicating.

Identifying Factors for Hemp Plants

Cannabis plants, especially in their natural wild state, can all be similar. However, hemp and other cannabis varieties can look quite different when industries grow them for specific purposes.

Anecdotal evidence states that cannabis plants for hemp production tend to:

green cannabis plant.  We keep on hearing about hemp plants, but what are they really?

On the other hand, cannabis plants grown primarily for their THC content tend to:

Uses and health benefits of hemp planta

Hemp seeds and hemp oil made from compressed hemp seeds are extremely nutritious reliable sources. They are rich in protein, fibre, and magnesium. Hemp seeds also contain very high levels of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which can help:

Hemp also contains a variety of antioxidants or compounds that protect cells from damage and can help reduce the risk of cancer, including:

Protein supplements may also contain hemp flour. Some food products also contain raw hemp seeds or hemp seed oil. Hemp seed milk is also an alternative to cow's milk and other less environmentally efficient products such as almond milk.

In addition to the health benefits of hemp's nutritious components, there are also potential health benefits of non-nutritive compounds such as CBD and THC. However, further research should establish its potential health and safety benefits.

Currently, there is some preliminary evidence that CBD may have the potential to help treat or manage:

person sitting while using laptop computer and green stethoscope near.  We keep on hearing about hemp plants, but what are they really?

Other Uses for Hemp Plants

Hemp stalk fibres are strong and used in many different ways. More than 25,000 products contain hemp.

Some popular products made from hemp or hemp products include:

Environmental Benefits of Hemp Plants

Growing hemp is more environmentally friendly, efficient and versatile than many other crops. The hemp plant is also capable of growing quickly in a variety of conditions.

As they grow, hemp plants create a dense canopy that keeps the sun from hitting competing weeds. Industrial hemp can even grow without significant amounts of pesticides, fungicides, and herbicides required by other crops.

Given how quickly it grows, hemp is excellent for sequestering or "capturing" carbon or absorbing carbon from the air and turning it into plant material throughout the hemp plant. One hectare of industrial hemp cultivation can suck up about 15 tonnes of carbon dioxide (C02).

Hemp plantations have dense, deep roots that can help prevent soil erosion and associated land loss.

Hemp roots are also able to extract nutrients from deep in the soil, including harmful heavy metals, and incorporate them into harmless plant matter. These qualities make hemp excellent at recovering, strengthening, and decontaminating or "cleaning up" soil.

In summary

white and purple flower in macro lens. We keep on hearing about hemp plants, but what are they really?

Hemp differs from other forms of cannabis in many ways, including its cultivation, use, and THC levels. Hemp also has multiple uses, and the way it is grown is more environmentally friendly than many other crops.

More research is needed. However, parts of hemp, such as seed, have significant nutritional value and cannabinoids such as CBD may have the potential for various health benefits.

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Cannabis investment is the new craze among the rich and famous

In an interview with Harper's Bazaar the singer Beyoncé reveals that she owns a cannabis plantation and joins the list of famous people who have started to focus on cannabis investments.

Few businesses offer as many opportunities in the world today as the cannabis investment industry. A recent report published by the Bank of Montreal, Canada's oldest private institution and therefore quite traditional, reached this conclusion. "The potential is so great that it could eventually raise the skyline," the report said.

two women looking at person across the table. Cannabis investment is the new craze among the rich and famous

From large companies to small entrepreneurs and the consuming public, products made with different types of plants from the same cannabis family draw attention for their variety and versatility.

In this vein, world-renowned celebrities have been betting on the business. Investments range from cannabis brands in the United States to hemp as a raw material for fabric manufacturing in Brazil.


Beyoncé spoke about her personal experience with marijuana use and revealed having a cannabis crop on a farm during an interview with Harper's Bazaar, published Tuesday, 10, the magazine for which the singer is the cover of August.

At the time, the artist openly stated about using CBD (cannabidiol) to combat stress, in addition to physical pain and inflammation, and said that she started growing marijuana exclusively on a farm.

"During quarantine, I went from excess to creating positive rituals inspired by previous generations and putting my interpretation on things. I discovered CBD on my last tour and experienced its benefits for pain and inflammation. It helped my nights and the commotion that comes from not being able to sleep," the singer told the magazine.

Beyonce magazine near tea on teacup. Cannabis investment is the new craze among the rich and famous


The Canadian rapper also has cannabis investments. In fact, he launched his cannabis brand in his home country in 2019. Called the More Life Growth Company, the venture is a partnership with the giant marijuana producer Canopy Growth Corp – which received $4 billion in contributions in 2018.

Under the agreement, Drake will have 60% of the brand. "The idea of ​​being able to build something special in an ever-growing industry has been inspiring," he said at the time in a press release, according to The Hollywood Reporter.

Mike Tyson

The world boxing legend has recently decided to invest in the cannabis market and has seen his financial life get back on track after numerous problems throughout his career as a boxer. In 2003, he went bankrupt after losing $300 million. Cannabis investments have proven to be a positive note for him.

Tyson invests in growing plant varieties on an approximately 160,000 square meter property in California called the Tyson Ranch. That's where the raw material to manufacture his brand products, Tyson Holistic Holdings, comes out. Sales reach US$ 500 thousand per month, around R$ 3 million.

man in black and white striped long sleeve shirt. Cannabis investment is the new craze among the rich and famous

Whoopi Goldberg

Oscar-winner for Ghost – The Other Side of Life in 1991, the American actress ventured into the medical cannabis investment market in 2016. Together with businesswoman Maya Elisabeth, Goldberg launched Whoopi & Maya.

The company has a specific focus on providing medical cannabis to women suffering from menstrual pain. In early 2020, however, the company ended after personal fissures and problems along its trajectory.

Snoop Dogg

The Californian rapper has been into cannabis investments for a while. He has his brand of cannabis flowers, Leafs by Snoop, which sells the Indica and Sativa varieties of the herb. "Leafs by Snoop is the world's first mainstream cannabis brand, and I'm thrilled to be a pioneer," said the artist at the 2015 launch event.

In 2018, together with two other partners, Snoop created an investment fund for the cannabis market. Named Casa Verde Capital, the fund received a second round of investments in December 2020 worth $100 million, according to documents filed with the US Securities and Exchange Commission.

The list of celebrities venturing in cannabis investments is still extensive and has names like Jay-Z, Mexican guitarist Carlos Santana, actress Gwyneth Paltrow, and singer Miley Cyrus and her father Billy Ray Cyrus, all with solid investments in the market and different products derived from cannabis. In Brazil, we are still walking in ant steps, but with the advance of other countries on the subject, we will hardly be left out of this new "green wave".

green plant on blue plastic pot. Cannabis investment is the new craze among the rich and famous

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